OCDE : pour une industrialisation «propre» de l'Afrique

OCDE

Cette année, le Forum économique sur l'Afrique, organisé par le Centre de développement de l'OCDE, s'est penché sur l'industrialisation et l'entrepreneuriat. A cette occasion, les ministres présents ont réaffirmé leur soutien aux entrepreneurs locaux et la poursuite des réformes engagées pour accompagner une industrialisation «propre» sur le Continent. Mercredi 4 octobre, l'Organisation de coopération et de développement économique (OCDE) accueillait le 17e Forum économique international sur l'Afrique, en présence de nombreuses personnalités. Si Alpha Condé s'est désisté à la dernière minute, Mamady Youla, le Premier ministre, arrivé le matin même, a assuré la représentation de l'Etat guinéen, aux côtés de Daniel Kablan Duncan, vice-président de la Côte d'Ivoire, de Jose Angel Gurria, secrétaire général de l'OCDE, de Victor Harison, commissaire des questions économiques auprès de l'Union Africaine (UA), d'Ibrahim Mohammed Awal, ministre du Développement économique ghanéen ou encore de Luis Felipe Lopes Tavares, ministre des Affaires étrangères du Cap-Vert. Rémy Rioux représentait l'Agence française de développement (AFD) qui était «pour la première fois partenaire de l'évènement». Il a rappelé que c'est «en Afrique que se joue largement l'avenir du monde» et a présenté les engagements pris par sa filiale Proparco qui va doubler ses financements pour atteindre 2 milliards d'euros par an, et tripler les impacts de ses interventions en faveur de l'emploi, du climat, de l'accès aux services essentiels et à l'innovation dans le cadre de sa stratégie 2017-2020. Dans son discours introductif, le secrétaire général de l'OCDE est revenu quant à lui sur les grands défis auxquels sont confrontés les entrepreneurs africains : «Le manque d'accès à l'infrastructure et à l'électricité, l'insuffisance de personnel qualifié et les difficultés d'accès au financement». Soutenir l'industrialisation suppose «un volontarisme politique pour attirer des opportunités d'investissement qui sont ailleurs aujourd'hui, en Chine par exemple», a poursuivi Mario Pezzini, le directeur du Centre de développement de l'OCDE qui a également proposé la création de «zones de libre-échange, sans barrière douanières» au niveau régional, mais aussi de «centres de coopération Sud-Sud» au niveau international. Les références à «l'émergence» des modèles asiatiques ont d'ailleurs alimenté les échanges tout au long de cette journée... Un dragon ivoirien en 2020 En effet, si le «Sud innove et inspire le Nord» d'après Rémy Rioux de l'AFD, le Sud inspire également le Sud et la Côte d'Ivoire se rêve aujourd'hui en «dragon» africain. «L'Afrique est désormais visible sur les cartes économiques», a introduit Daniel Kablan Duncan, arrivé la veille à Paris, précisant que l'Afrique constituait désormais «la nouvelle frontière du développement». Il n'a pas caché «l'optimisme » de la Côte d'Ivoire qui ambitionne de devenir un «pays émergent d'ici à 2020 ». Avec 30% des réserves mondiales en minerais et 60% des terres arables inexploitées ainsi qu'une population jeune (40% âgée de moins de 15 ans), le continent dispose d'atouts majeurs, mais aussi de défis de taille : «L'Afrique ne représente que 3% du commerce mondial, et seulement 2% des IDE», a-t-il déploré. Il faut «relever le défi du financement adéquat à notre développement». Daniel Kablan Duncan a rappelé que l'amélioration de l'environnement des affaires en Côte d'Ivoire reposait notamment sur une «forte dématérialisation des actes administratifs», mais aussi sur un soutien actif aux PME qui représentent aujourd'hui 18% du PIB, avec l'objectif d'atteindre 40% en 2020. A travers le Programme Phoenix pour les PME (2015-2020) doté de 131,1 millions d'euros, la Côte d'Ivoire propose d'ores et déjà un accompagnement aux entrepreneurs ivoiriens en termes d'amélioration à l'accès aux financements et aux marchés publics, mais aussi un soutien au renforcement des capacités et à l'innovation. Le vice-président a également rappelé que le secteur industriel était en pleine expansion passant de 25% du PIB en 2014 à 30% aujourd'hui. La Côte d'Ivoire ambitionne d'atteindre 40% d'ici 2020. Pour conclure sur l'importance des TIC dans le dispositif national, il cite Houphouët-Boigny : «Si la Côte d'Ivoire a raté la révolution industrielle, elle ne doit pas rater la révolution informatique». En marge de l'évènement, Daniel Kablan Duncan a assuré la promotion de la diplomatie économique ivoirienne à travers plusieurs audiences avec Vincent Larnicole, vice-président d'Airbus, mais aussi avec les représentants de la compagnie américaine Johnson & Johnson, de l'incubateur SITE F ou encore avec Louis Dreyfus, président du directoire du groupe Le Monde ou Michel Camdessus, ex-DG du FMI. Quelle industrialisation pour la Guinée ? Pour Mamady Youla, le Premier ministre guinéen, «la lutte contre la pauvreté ne suffit pas», partant du constat que l'industrialisation reste «une absolue nécessité sur les plans économique, social et politique» pour un développement durable et inclusif. Se référant à son tour, aux locomotives économiques du Sud, il poursuit : «les pays asiatiques se sont développés en créant des chaînes de valeur et nous devons nous en inspirer. Il nous faut couvrir tous les secteurs de croissance en nous appuyant sur les TIC». Youla a néanmoins précisé qu'il fallait «dépasser les approches traditionnelles se limitant aux seules industries manufacturières, pour couvrir tous les secteurs porteurs de croissance et d'emploi ». Le Premier ministre a confirmé que le secteur privé serait placé au cœur du dispositif de réforme économique afin de lutter contre «la volatilité souvent insoutenable des marchés» et la «détérioration des termes de l'échange» qui favorisent la «paupérisation» des populations. Pour soutenir cette stratégie globale de développement, les petits entrepreneurs locaux occuperont une position-clef, car les entreprises de moins de 5 ans, employant moins de 20 salariés, créent aujourd'hui 22% des emplois formels. Pour les accompagner, Mario Pezzini a insisté sur la nécessité d'une réelle «implication» des politiques publiques. C'est justement le nouveau paradigme défendu par Mamady Youla qui a confirmé la volonté de l'Etat guinéen d'engager de profondes réformes pour attirer les investisseurs en multipliant les «partenariats publics privés», en créant de «nouveaux instruments de financement» et en développant le «capital-risque». Enfin, le Premier ministre a conclu son intervention sur le poids du secteur agricole et sur la nécessité de structurer une agro-industrie innovante : «L'avenir de l'industrialisation africaine reposera sur l'industrialisation de son agriculture qui représente 50% de la main d'œuvre du Continent». Le défi écologique face au dividende démographique Angel Gurria, secrétaire général de l'OCDE, a rappelé que l'industrialisation était «au cœur de l'Agenda 2063 de l'Union Africaine» tout en soulignant que l'Afrique devait «éviter les pièges de l'industrialisation sale» en favorisant les énergies nouvelles. Au défi de l'industrialisation vient s'ajouter celui des technologies propres, ce qui n'altère en rien l'optimisme d'Angel Gurria qui ajoute : «Le Continent a démontré sa capacité à adopter rapidement de nouvelles technologies», avec 222 millions d'Africains bénéficiaires du m-banking, c'est-à-dire «plus que tous les autres pays en développement combinés !» Il invite donc les entrepreneurs à s'engager dans «l'industrie 4.0». Les progrès de la technologie «modifient la nature de la production et créent de nouvelles opportunités» d'emplois, qui seront les bienvenues au regard des «29 millions de jeunes Africains qui atteindront l'âge de travailler chaque année d'ici 2030», a-t-il ajouté. Toutefois, la «révolution industrielle» africaine ne fera pas l'économie de profondes réformes juridiques et fiscales pour stimuler les investissements en participant à l'élaboration d'un environnement des affaires plus favorable au secteur privé. La généralisation des best-practices et la multiplication des règles de transparence, comme l'Initiative OCDE-PNUD des Inspecteurs des impôts sans frontières (TIWB) réunissant 11 pays africains, a déjà rapporté «des millions de revenus supplémentaires aux gouvernements africains», comme l'a mentionné Jose Angel Gurria. Enfin, parallèlement à l'entrepreneuriat «choisi», il a également été question de l'entrepreneuriat «subi» qui demeure un défi considérable en Afrique subsaharienne, faute d'emplois salariés suffisants. Le dividende démographique dépendra largement de la capacité de chaque pays à renforcer ses programmes de formation professionnelle, tout en optimisant ses ressources humaines à -très- courte échéance...

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